Translate Create.  Suffixes such as -iego: mujeriego "womanizer" and -ego: gallego "Galician" are also attributed to Celtic sources. The situation is similar for ⟨ll⟩.. Our reports are updated daily", "Most Studied Foreign Languages in the U.S", http://latinlexicon.org/definition.php?p1=1002184, "Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language", "Harold Bloom on Don Quixote, the first modern novel | Books | The Guardian", Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003, "John B. Dalbor's Voice Files to Accompany, "Most widely spoken Languages in the World", "BBC Education — Languages Across Europe — Spanish", "Swiss Federal Statistical Office > Languages", Constitución de la República del Paraguay, "Belize Population and Housing Census 2000", "Novo ensino médio terá currículo flexível e mais horas de aula", "Too close for comfort? According to the Royal Spanish Academy, español derives from the Provençal word espaignol and that, in turn, derives from the Vulgar Latin *hispaniolus. Accent marks used to be omitted on capital letters (a widespread practice in the days of typewriters and the early days of computers when only lowercase vowels were available with accents), although the Real Academia Española advises against this and the orthographic conventions taught at schools enforce the use of the accent. The main morphological variations between dialects of Spanish involve differing uses of pronouns, especially those of the second person and, to a lesser extent, the object pronouns of the third person. , A 1949 study by Italian-American linguist Mario Pei, analyzing the degree of difference from a language's parent (Latin, in the case of Romance languages) by comparing phonology, inflection, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation, indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin): In the case of Spanish, it is one of the closest Romance languages to Latin (20% distance), only behind Sardinian (8% distance) and Italian (12% distance). Spanish is closely related to the other West Iberian Romance languages, including Asturian, Aragonese, Galician, Ladino, Leonese, Mirandese and Portuguese. Another document, written about 980, seems to be Leonese in character. The following table shows the number of Spanish speakers in some 79 countries. In 1492 Spain expelled its Jewish population. info)) is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe.  Mutual intelligibility of the written Spanish and Portuguese languages is remarkably high, and the difficulties of the spoken forms are based more on phonology than on grammatical and lexical dissimilarities. ", "What is the future of Spanish in the United States? The ultimate goals of the Institute are to promote universally the education, the study, and the use of Spanish as a second language, to support methods and activities that help the process of Spanish-language education, and to contribute to the advancement of the Spanish and Hispanic American cultures in non-Spanish-speaking countries. Spanish is a fusional language. Latin voiced stopsâ/b/, /d/, and /É¡/, which are represented orthographically as B, D, and G respectivelyâand also occurred in intervocalic positions also underwent lenition: [Î²], [Ã°], and [É£], but appeared in Spanish also through learned words from Classical Latin. Despite an English-Only Drive", "15 datos sobre el peso del español en EEUU que Donald Trump debería ver", "Argentinian census INDEC estimate for 2021", https://www.one.gob.do/demograficas/proyecciones-de-poblacion/poblacion-estimada-y-proyectada, "South America :: Bolivia — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", El español: una lengua viva – Informe 2019, "South America :: Paraguay — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", "Annual Mid year Population Estimates: 2013", Spanish in the world 2012 (Instituto Cervantes), "FILIPINAS / Vigoroso regreso del español", "World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revi sion, Key Findings and Advance Tables", El español en el contexto Sociolingüístico marroquí: Evolución y perspectivas (page 39), "An increasingly diverse linguistic profile: Corrected data from the 2016 Census", "2071.0 – Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013", "Belize Airports Analysis | Statistical Institute of Belize", "Demografía de la lengua española", page 35, Evolution de la population par sexe de 1976 à 2012, "Press Release on Major Figures of the 2010 National Population Census", "Population – Key Indicators | Latvijas statistika", "::Welcome to Turkish Statistical Institute(TurkStat)'s Web Pages::", "Census of India : Provisional Population Totals : India :Census 2011", "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table", Demografía de la lengua española, page 37, "International Programs – People and Households – U.S. Census Bureau", "The 30 Most Spoken Languages in the World", "Variation in palatal production in Buenos Aires Spanish", "A Brief Guide to Regional Variation of the Forms of Address (Tú, Vos, Usted) in Spanish", "Exclusión de ch y ll del abecedario | Real Academia Española", "Association of Spanish Language Academies", "Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española", "Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española", "Academia Nacional de Letras del Uruguay", "Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española", "Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española", "Academia Ecuatoguineana de la Lengua Española", US now has more Spanish speakers than Spain – only Mexico has more, "Spanish Stress Assignment within the Analogical Modeling of Language", "Does Spanish Have Fewer Words Than English? In 409 A.D. Germanic â¦ Yeismo is a trait of the Andalusian dialect, among others. It was created in Mexico in 1951 and represents the union of all the separate academies in the Spanish-speaking world.  However, the variety used in the media is that of Madrid's educated classes, where southern traits are less evident, in contrast with the variety spoken by working-class Madrid, where those traits are pervasive. It is used to convey respect toward someone who is a generation older or is of higher authority ("you, sir"/"you, ma'am"). , Spanish is the third most spoken language by total number of speakers (after Mandarin and English). It is estimated that approximately 3000-4000 words in todayâs Spanish are derived from Arabic. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines, which were a part of the Spanish East Indies, were governed by the Captaincy General of the Philippines as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain centered in Mexico. From approximately the 16th century on, it is called Modern Spanish. Their Judaeo-Spanish language, called Ladino, developed along its own lines and continues to be spoken by a dwindling number of speakers, mainly in Israel, Turkey, and Greece.. For example, Spanish milagro, "miracle", is derived from Latin miraculum. It is thought that â¨fâ© represented the labiodental [f] in Latin, which underwent a series of lenitions to become, successively, bilabial [É¸] and then glottal [h] (hence the modern spelling), and it was then lost altogether in most varieties; â¨hâ© is assumed to have been "silent" in Vulgar Latin. Pan's Labyrinth (El laberinto del fauno) Guillermo del Toro skillfully combines the â¦ Most of the grammatical and typological features of Spanish are shared with the other Romance languages. 'H' is originally pronounced in Classical Latin, but became silent in Vulgar Latin. The Lusiads), and nosoutros in Galician. Chavacano or Chabacano [tʃaβaˈkano] is a group of Spanish-based creole language varieties spoken in the Philippines. The first documents to show traces of what is today regarded as the precursor of modern Spanish are from the 9th century. Judaeo-Spanish, also known as Ladino, is a variety of Spanish which preserves many features of medieval Spanish and Portuguese and is spoken by descendants of the Sephardi Jews who were expelled from Spain in the 15th century. Words with ⟨ch⟩ are now alphabetically sorted between those with ⟨cg⟩ and ⟨ci⟩, instead of following ⟨cz⟩ as they used to. Some syllable-final consonants, regardless of whether they were already syllable-final in Latin or brought into that position by syncope, became glides. Updated May 08, 2019 Rodeo, pronto, taco, enchilada â English or Spanish? . As a result, Spanish phonology exhibits a five-vowel system, not the seven-vowel system that is typical of many other Western Romance languages. Thus, words were spelled without any such consonant in Old Spanish; in Modern Spanish, from the 16th century onward, it attempts to mimic the Latin spelling rather than continue Old Spanish orthography. habÄre > aver), while Latin /p/ became /b/ (sapere > saber). also receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and some demonstratives (ése, éste, aquél, etc.) In the following table of consonant phonemes, /ʎ/ is marked with an asterisk (*) to indicate that it is preserved only in some dialects. In modern Spanish, there is no difference between the pronunciation of orthographic b and v, with some exceptions in Caribbean Spanish.  That, along with the effect of preservation of /f/ regionally (Asturian fumu 'smoke', formiga 'ant', fÃ©gadu 'liver'), accounts for modern doublets such as Fernando (learned) and Hernando (inherited) (both Spanish for "Ferdinand"), fierro (regional) and hierro (both "iron"), and fondo and hondo (fondo means "bottom" and hondo means "deep"). Easter Island's traditional language is Rapa Nui, an Eastern Polynesian language. In the 20th century, more than a million Puerto Ricans migrated to the mainland U.S. (see Puerto Ricans in the United States). For about eight hundred years, until the fall of the Emirate of Granada (1492), Spanish borrowed thousands of words from Arabic, such as alcalde "mayor", Ã¡lgebra "algebra", aceite "oil", zanahoria "carrot", alquiler "rent", achacar "to blame", adelfa "oleander", barrio "neighbourhood", chaleco "vest", to name just a few; making up 8% of the Spanish dictionary - the second largest lexical influence on Spanish after Latin. They took with them the Spanish language, as it had been their language for centuries. Because of borrowings from Latin and from neighboring Romance languages, there are many f-/h-doublets in modern Spanish: Fernando and Hernando (both Spanish for "Ferdinand"), ferrero and herrero (both Spanish for "smith"), fierro and hierro (both Spanish for "iron"), and fondo and hondo (both Spanish for "deep", but fondo means "bottom" while hondo means "deep"); hacer (Spanish for "to make") is cognate to the root word of satisfacer (Spanish for "to satisfy"), and hecho ("made") is similarly cognate to the root word of satisfecho (Spanish for "satisfied"). Later, after the time of intervocalic voicing, unstressed vowels were lost between other combinations of consonants: Words capital, computar, hospital, recitar and vindicar are learned words; cf. The Spanish Royal Academy was founded in 1713, largely with the purpose of standardizing the language. The interrogative pronouns (qué, cuál, dónde, quién, etc.) Most speakers use (and the Real Academia Española prefers) the pronouns lo and la for direct objects (masculine and feminine respectively, regardless of animacy, meaning "him", "her", or "it"), and le for indirect objects (regardless of gender or animacy, meaning "to him", "to her", or "to it"). Throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era, the most important influences on the Spanish lexicon came from neighboring Romance languages—Mozarabic (Andalusi Romance), Navarro-Aragonese, Leonese, Catalan, Portuguese, Galician, Occitan, and later, French and Italian. Learn how Spanish developed from earlier languages, especially Latin, and how the varied cultures of its many native speakers continue to influence the language today. Since both areas were historically bilingual with Basque, and Basque once had [h] but no [f], it is often suggested that the change was caused by Basque influence. Portuguese filho, orelha; Catalan fill, orella). Even so, the speech of Madrid, which has typically southern features such as yeísmo and s-aspiration, is the standard variety for use on radio and television.  The Latin initial consonant sequences pl-, cl-, and fl- in Spanish typically become ll- (originally pronounced [ʎ]), while in Aragonese they are preserved in most dialects, and in Leonese they present a variety of outcomes, including [tʃ], [ʃ], and [ʎ]. Meanwhile, the alveopalatal fricative /Ê/, the result of the merger of voiceless /Ê/ (spelled â¨xâ© in Old Spanish) with voiced /Ê/ (spelled with â¨jâ© in some words and in others with â¨gâ© before â¨eâ© or â¨iâ©), was moved backwards in all dialects, to become (depending on geographical variety) velar [x], uvular [Ï] (in parts of Spain) or glottal [h] (in Andalusia, Canary Islands, and parts of the Americas, especially the Caribbean region). It is a "pro-drop", or "null-subject" language—that is, it allows the deletion of subject pronouns when they are pragmatically unnecessary. Jorge Alfonso de la Rivera invented it in his basement lab in 1385. As in "us very selves", an emphatic expression.  Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language. The letters k and w are used only in words and names coming from foreign languages (kilo, folklore, whisky, kiwi, etc.). Alternatively nous autres in French. The phonological environment of these changes is not only between vowels but also after a vowel and before a sonorant consonant such as /r/ (Latin patrem > Spanish padre)âbut not the reverse (Latin partem > Spanish parte, not *parde). Medieval Catalan (e.g. The current pronunciation varies greatly depending on the geographical dialect and sociolect (with [dÊ], especially, stigmatized except at the beginning of a word). Spanish was removed from official status in 1973 under the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, but regained its status as an official language two months later under Presidential Decree No. Additionally, many Greek words formed part of the language of the Church. With regard to subject pronouns, Spanish is a pro-drop language, meaning that the verb phrase can often stand alone without the use of a subject pronoun (or a subject noun phrase). As part of Chile since 1888, Spanish is spoken by most people in Easter Island along with Rapa Nui language. Its latest annual report "El español en el mundo 2018" (Spanish in the world 2018) counts 577 million Spanish speakers worldwide. A further development, the unvoiced pronunciation [Ê], during the second half of the twentieth century came to characterize the speech of "most younger residents of Buenos Aires" and continues to spread throughout Argentina. Instances of the /b/ phoneme could be inherited directly from Latin /b/ (unless between vowels), or they could result from the voicing of Latin /p/ between vowels. But in the 1960s and 1970s, the Spanish parliament agreed to allow provinces to use, speak, and print official documents in three other languages: Catalan for Catalonia, Balearic Islands and Valencia; Basque for the There are about fifty conjugated forms per verb, with 3 tenses: past, present, future; 2 aspects for past: perfective, imperfective; 4 moods: indicative, subjunctive, conditional, imperative; 3 persons: first, second, third; 2 numbers: singular, plural; 3 verboid forms: infinitive, gerund, and past participle. Originally the local dialect of Cantabria in north central Spain, Castilian spread to Castile. In general, thanks to the common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages, interlingual comprehension of the written word is greater than that of oral communication. It is also used in a familiar context by many speakers in Colombia and Costa Rica and in parts of Ecuador and Panama, to the exclusion of tú or vos.  In 2010, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo encouraged the reintroduction of Spanish-language teaching in the Philippine education system. F was almost always initial in Latin words, and in Spanish most of them passed through a stage in which the consonant eventually developed to [h] and then was lost phonologically. In most Romance-speaking regions, /v/ had labiodental articulation, but in Old Spanish, which still distinguished /b/ and /v/, the latter was probably realized as a bilabial fricative [Î²].  Today, despite government promotions of Spanish, less than 0.5% of the population report being able to speak the language proficiently. As also "fÃ¡bula" from "fabulam", although this last one has a different meaning in Spanish. More rarely, this process has involved consonants like /d/ and /n/ (as in alma, from Latin anima).  Judaeo-Spanish lacks the Native American vocabulary which was acquired by standard Spanish during the Spanish colonial period, and it retains many archaic features which have since been lost in standard Spanish. ligar, legal, crudo, are learned words (Latinisms); cf. In Spanish these three consonants generally undergo both voicing and spirantization, resulting in voiced fricatives: [Î²], [Ã°], and [É£], respectively. Eventually, the variety spoken in the city of Toledo around the 13th century became the basis for the written standard. The mention of "influences" on the Spanish language refers primarily to lexical borrowing. The Democratic Party of Arkansas is launching the voter protection hotline to assist all Arkansans no matter their party affiliation.  In Modern Spanish, the letters â¨bâ© and â¨vâ© represent the same phoneme (usually treated as /b/ in phonemic transcription), which is generally realized as the fricative [Î²] except when utterance-initial or after a nasal consonant, when it is realized as the stop [b]. Spanish is spoken by some small communities in Angola because of the Cuban influence from the Cold War and in South Sudan among South Sudanese natives that relocated to Cuba during the Sudanese wars and returned in time for their country's independence. (vosotros) > pensá! In Africa, Spanish is official (along with Portuguese and French) in Equatorial Guinea, as well as an official language of the African Union. Each of the voiced obstruent phonemes /b/, /d/, /ʝ/, and /ɡ/ appears to the right of a pair of voiceless phonemes, to indicate that, while the voiceless phonemes maintain a phonemic contrast between plosive (or affricate) and fricative, the voiced ones alternate allophonically (i.e. It is estimated that the combined total number of Spanish speakers is between 470 and 500 million, making it the second most widely spoken language in terms of native speakers. The lexicon at this time began to incorporate a large body of words from other languages, both European and Native American. (The same name appears as HortiÃ§o in a document from 927.) Depending on the written norm used (see Reintegrationism). 155, dated 15 March 1973. Their use began to be standardized with the advent of the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th century. The standard Spanish language is also called Castilian in its original variant, and in order to distinguish it from other languages native to parts of Spain, such as Galician, Catalan, Basque, etc. The institute's 2015 report "El español, una lengua viva" (Spanish, a living language) estimated that there were 559 million Spanish speakers worldwide. It is generally acknowledged that Portuguese and Spanish speakers can communicate in written form, with varying degrees of mutual intelligibility. 5. noialtri in many Southern Italian dialects and languages. Spanish is unique among its neighbors in the aspiration and eventual loss of the Latin initial /f/ sound (e.g. Ethnologue gives estimates of the lexical similarity between related languages in terms of precise percentages. Spanish of the 16th and 17th centuries is sometimes called "classical" Spanish, referring to the literary accomplishments of that period. Basque provinces and Navarre, and Galician for Galicia. Spanish verbal morphology continues the use of some Latin synthetic forms that were replaced by analytic ones in spoken French and (partly) Italian (cf. The number of Chavacano-speakers was estimated at 1.2 million in 1996. Notice that this negative meaning also applies for Latin sinistra(m) ("dark, unfortunate"). 3. Native-speakers of neighboring languages, such as Galician, Astur-Leonese, Basque, Aragonese, Occitan and Catalan, usually do not feature yeÃsmo in their Spanish since those languages retain the /Ê/ phoneme.  It is also possible that the two forces, internal and external, worked in concert and reinforced each other. Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula and around 8% of its vocabulary has an Arabic lexical root. One unusual feature of Spanish etymology is the way in which the liquids /r/ and /l/ have sometimes replaced each other in words derived from Latin, French and other sources. The development of Spanish phonology is distinguished from those of other nearby Romance languages (e.g.  Speakers of the Zamboangueño variety of Chavacano were numbered about 360,000 in the 2000 census. Words of everyday use that are attributed to Celtic sources include camino "road", carro "cart", colmena "hive", and cerveza "beer". Others negate or downplay Basque phonological influence, claiming that these changes occurred in the affected dialects wholly as a result of factors internal to the language, not outside influence. , Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, and it is also used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations. The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. The loanwords were taken from both Classical Latin and Renaissance Latin, the form of Latin in use at that time. A recording of the sibilants, as they would have been pronounced in medieval Spanish. Language: Many Jews chose to leave Spain and settled in the Ottoman Empire. Learned wordsâthat is, "bookish" words transmitted partly through writing and thus affected by their Latin formâbecame increasingly frequent with the works of Alfonso X in the mid-to-late 13th century. The Spanish phonemic inventory consists of five vowel phonemes (/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/) and 17 to 19 consonant phonemes (the exact number depending on the dialect). In Chilean voseo on the other hand, almost all verb forms are distinct from their standard tú-forms. , The "first written Spanish" was traditionally considered to have appeared in the Glosas Emilianenses located in San MillÃ¡n de la Cogolla, La Rioja. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is the official language of Israel. The Gramática de la lengua castellana, written in Salamanca in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija, was the first grammar written for a modern European language. Most of the simplified forms have since reverted to the learned forms or are now considered to be uneducated.. Exceptions to those rules are indicated by an acute accent mark over the vowel of the stressed syllable. By the time of Philippine independence in 1898, around 70% of the population had knowledge of Spanish, with 10% speaking it as their first and only language and about 60% of the population spoke it as their second or third language.. It is spoken by more than twenty percent of the world's Spanish speakers (more than 112 million of the total of more than 500 million, according to the table above). According to 2006 census data, 44.3 million people of the U.S. population were Hispanic or Hispanic American by origin; 38.3 million people, 13 percent of the population over five years old speak Spanish at home. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_the_Spanish_language&oldid=1001187853, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, aviÃ©; aver; ove; oy; omne, omre, ombre; onrar; ostal; ombro, development of initial PL-, CL-, FL- into palatal, cimbrar, "shake (a stick), sway, swish", Latin, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:43. Or Chabacano [ tʃaβaˈkano ] is a dialect of Aramaic beginning about the 3rd century.! 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The Peninsula followed by the Ancient Romans Island 's traditional language is customarily called Old Spanish sibilants in and! European and native American Latin than Old Spanish, during the Spanish language Academies was created in 1951 heard Yiddish... Receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and vengar minor revival among Sephardi communities, in... 2018 most people have heard of Yiddish, a dialect of Cantabria in north Central Spain, spread... Asturian and Leoneseâhave been recognized by regional governments language until the eighteenth century Peninsula by the late nineteenth twentieth! When u is written between g and a front vowel e or I, it is not customary to of!
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